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Astaxanthin and Carnipure L-Carnitine-L-tartrate in Astashine Silver is multifunctional super nutrients supplement. Carnipure’s L- Carnitine has shown to be more effective in energy metabolism, muscle endurance, weight management, cardiovascular health and healthy aging.

What is L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate?

L-Carnitine is a vitamin-like nutrient related to vitamins of the B-group. L-Carnitine is a physiological substance, essential for energy production and for fat metabolism. L-Carnitine can be synthesized in the human liver and kidney, but insufficient amount may be produced in infants, in adolescents and in adults under certain physiological conditions. The source of L-Carnitine is Dietary sources and Endogenous synthesis. L-Carnitine is supplied to the human body via both food intake and endogenous synthesis (we can make it ourselves in the bodies). The dietary sources of L-Carnitine are confined mainly to foods of animal origin, particularly red meat (this obviously has important implication for vegetarians) and dietary L-Carnitine is absorbed in the small intestine. Endogenous synthesis requires six other nutrients, including amino acids, vitamins and iron. Since, synthesis takes place primarily in the liver and kidney. The skeletal muscle and the heart, which depend upon fat breakdown for energy, are highly dependent of L-Carnitine transport from the site of synthesis. L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate is a salt of 68% L-Carnitine and 32% tartaric and which is highest L-Carnitine concentration of any commercially available hygroscopic salt form. L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate in ASTASHINE Silver is heat and pH Stable.

(Include pathway for endogenous synthesis of L-Carnitine)

Fatty Acid Oxidation

Carnipure’s L-Carnitine in ASTASHINE Silver helps the body, use fat for energy generation. This process is called “fatty acid metabolism, or beta oxidation”, and takes place within the mitochondrial matrix of a cell. In order for fatty acids to be metabolized into energy, they must be transported across the mitochondrial membrane. L-carnitine is the transport molecule to bring fatty acids into the matrix. In order to be transported into the matrix, fatty acids must be activated. This activation involves a fatty acid, sometimes referred to as an acyl group, combining with a compound called co-enzyme A, or CoA. When the fatty acid has been activated, it is then referred to as acyl-CoA. This is the compound that L-carnitine joins with to form acyl-L-carnitine. The process of shuttling acyl-L-carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane involves three different enzymes. They are Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1), Carnitine acyl translocase (CT) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT2). CPT1 is considered the rate limiting step to fatty acid oxidation because it is tightly regulated by malonyl CoA10. Malonyl CoA and L-carnitine both compete for binding sites on CPT1.

Coenzyme A Regulation

Another function of L-carnitine is related to regulating coenzyme A in the mitochondria. CoA is an important co-factor for many energy producing metabolic pathways. L-carnitine helps increase the amount of free CoA available in the mitochondria. For example, when L-carnitine binds to acyl-CoA for fatty acid metabolism, the CoA group is free and can participate in other energy producing pathways. In another example of this regulation function, L-carnitine can also bind to acetylCoA. In this case, acetyl-L-carnitine forms and CoA is released into the mitochondria1. Free CoA is again able to join other pathways, such as the oxidative metabolism of glucose.


Detoxification is the third major metabolic function of L-carnitine. Certain compounds form toxic by-products which need to be removed from the body. L-carnitine can help in these situations by binding to the toxic substance. This is then excreted by the body.

For example, during heavy exercise, individuals excrete excess metabolic waste through ester formation with L-carnitine.

In another example, patients on long term treatment with certain xenobiotics, or prodrugs, such as pivalic acid, use L-carnitine to remove toxic by-products. Over 90 percent of administered pivalic acid is eliminated from the body in the form of pivalonyl carnitine. Long term use of those types of drugs, however, may lead to decreased plasma levels of L-carnitine and subsequently to secondary L-carnitine deficiency.

Role of Carnipure® tartrate in ASTASHINE Silver

Role of L-Carnitine on Exercise & Recovery

  • Helps to decrease muscle soreness by improving recovery time.
  • Helps to increase blood flow, reduces tissue damage and markers of metabolic stress.
  • Helps to decrease exercise-induced muscle damage.
  • Helps to enhance lipid oxidation, spare muscle glycogen and improve exercise performance.

Role of L-Carnitine on Weight Management

  • Helps to support the conversion of fat into metabolic energy.
  • Helps to increase beta-oxidation, sparing glucose and decreases breakdown of amino acids.
  • Helps to decrease fat mass by preserving muscle mass.
  • Helps to decrease physical and mental fatigue.

Role of L-carnitine on Male Fertility

  • Helps to increase sperm count, quality, motility and maturation.
  • Helps to increase energy metabolism and supports sperm quality.
  • Helps to increase antioxidant enzymes such as haemeoxygenase-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthetase.
  • Helps to increase the percentage of sperm with rapid progression.

Role of L-Carnitine on Cardiovascular Health

Helps to regulate heart arrhythmia.
Helps to increase heart muscle viability.
Helps to improve lipid metabolism and antioxidant status.
L- Carnitine is an important energy provider for the heart.


Role of L-Carnitine on Healthy Aging

  • Helps to decrease markers of oxidative stress.
  • Helps to increase energy metabolism in Elderly people.
  • Helps to restore muscle oxidative activity in soleus.
  • Helps to reduce lipid oxidative metabolism there by limits muscle aging.
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